Hello everybody and welcome back to my channel! Today I want to talk to you about the particle CI. I wanted to prepare another lesson on this topic because I believe it is very important to understand well how it is used and why CI is used in the Italian language In a previous video I spoke of CI, but not extensively like I intend to do in this video Together we will see again in which contexts to use and what the rules are to use the particle CI, obviously we will also see many examples, so take paper and pen and make yourselves comfortable! The particle CI is so small, but at the same time so full of meaning We can identify 4 grammatical functions that the particle CI covers in the Italian grammar Let's see one at a time. The first grammatical function that CI covers is that of direct personal pronoun The this case, CI substitutes NOI (us) Let's see an example: Our mother loves us. Who does our mother love? She loves us. We are the object of the love of our mother. Sara saw us at the restaurant. Who did Sara see at the restaurant? She saw us. When the question "Chi?" ("Whom") is asked It means (wants to say) that it is a direct object pronoun. The second grammatical function that CI covers is that of indirect personal pronoun. In this case CI substitutes TO or WITH US/HIM/HER/THEM Let's see some examples: Sara has told us everything. To whom has Sara told everything? She has told everything to us. Have you spoken with Laura and Franco? No, I have not spoken with them yet. I have not spoken with them yet. Do you still think about your ex? Yes, I still think about her. Yes, I still think about her. When the question "To whom?" or "With whom?" it means that it is an indirect personal pronoun. The third grammatical function of CI covers that of adverbial particle of place. In this case CI substitutes there, here, in that place, in this place Here we must distinguish when to use the verb "essere" and when to use the other verbs like for example: go, come, stay, etc. When we have the verb "essere" plus "ci", we obtain "esserci", which is combined in two forms: there is (singular) and there are (plural). There is, there are. There is a pen on the table. There are two pens on the table. So it indicates the position of the pens in the space. With other verbs, as I said before "Go, come, stay", "ci" substitutes the name that references the place. Let's see another example: Are we going to the cinema? I do not feel like going there. I don't feel like going to the cinema. In this sentence, CI means "the cinema". It substitutes the complement of place. The particle CI is useful in this type of phrase to avoid repetition, which usually we tend to to avoid by using pronouns Are you at the doctor's now? No, I'm going there in two hours. No, I'm going to the doctor's in two hours. In this sentence, CI means "at the doctor's" Have you ever been to the French Riviera? No, we have never been there No, we have never been there or in that place The fourth grammatical function that CI covers is that of pronominal particle In this case CI substitutes TO THIS, WITH THIS, ON THIS, OF THIS Let's see at some examples: Have you thought about my proposal? Yes, I have thought about it and I have decided to accept. Yes, I have thought about that (about your proposal) and I have decided to accept. What do you need all these photographs for? I'm making a collage with them. I'm making a collage with these (photographs). It was an terrible experience, but I try not to think about it anymore. I try not to think any more about this/that (about the experience) We must also add a fifth category, that is the group of verbs "metterci, volerci, tenerci (put us, want us, hold us), etc" In this case, CI makes up part of these verbs, so it can't be separated and analyzed individually, because it must be taken together with the verbal group. It makes up part of the verb and assumes an idiomatic meaning. In a phrase like: "It takes two hours to get to Florence from Rome by train" "It takes" is the whole verbal group of the sentence So "ci" can't be separated from "vogliono", because otherwise the sentence no longer makes sense In the case of these verbs, "ci" is an integral part of the verb and it needs to be used together. In fact, in the infinitive form the verb is "want us", not only "want". I think that this lesson is a little more extensive than the previous lessons that I have done on "ci". If you have not looked at it, I leave the link in the description below for completeness maybe you can go and look at that lesson too. I know that "cI" can be a little difficult to understand and to use, maybe more to use than to understand. Because the rules are clear enough, so you only must practice the use in the spoken language. If you have questions or doubts, you can write them below in the comments. Or you can write me an email. I hope that this video anyway has helped you to have a little more clear idea of how this particle "ci" functions and how to use it I thank you much for watching this video. Put a thumbs up if you liked it. Don't forget to subscribe to my channel, so you can always be up to date on new lessons And don't forget to follow me on Instagram, because there I give a lot of advice on books to read, italian music to listen to, I talk about many other things that at times are a little difficult to include here on the channel. So, if you want you can also find me on Instagram. Thanks a lot again and see you in the next video. Goodbye!