Tutorial Transcript

Hi everyone and welcome back to my channel. In today's video we talk about two very very important verbs to know and to use well. The two verbs are SAY and SPEAK, they may seem very easy to use, but in reality you have to be careful. Hence the structure of the sentence it changes according to the verb we choose to use. Let's start with the verb DIRE. SAY can be either transitive either intransitive, it means that this verb can be used with pronouns direct object and with the pronouns indirect object, because I can say "say something to someone", so you say something to a person. Let's see an example: "Sara told me she was leaving." In this sentence the two objects I'm explicit then we use pronouns to replace them and to make the sentence more natural. "Sara told me she was leaving," in which case I replaced only the object indirect "to me" which becomes "me". "Sara told me." "Sara told me." "That would have left" is the object direct of the sentence and therefore we can replace it with "lo", which is a pronoun direct. So please, remember to say something to someone. Let's now see the verb TALK. TALK is mainly intransitive, with one exception However. In fact if I say "speak a language", i am using "speak" as transitive verb, reason we can use it as transitive verb only in this example. Speak Italian, speak Spanish, speak English. So "speak a language". In all other cases instead TALK is a verb intransitive, talk about someone or something, Talk to someone, speak to someone and we can also say speak for someone. You see, in all these examples there is a preposition that introduces the object, therefore all these objects, that I am indirect, they can be replaced by indirect pronouns. For example: "I speak to her" and therefore "I speak to her". "I speak to him" and therefore "I speak to him", "I speak to them" and therefore "I speak to them" or "I speak to them", which we say is accepted in neo-standard Italian, contemporary. So when we find the preposition "a" replace the object with the pronouns indirect object. "I speak of her" becomes "I talk about it", "I'm talking about the movie", "I'm talking about it". When we have a complement indirect introduced by the preposition "di", we have to replace it with "ne" and it is not possible replace it with "lo". A few days ago we talked about this on my Instagram, because I had given you an example "I haven't seen that movie, but I've heard of it" and many of you asked me if it was possible replacing "ne" with "lo", ie using the pronoun "lo" instead of "ne", is not possible. Because in the sentence there is the verb "to speak". I can't say "I heard him speak" because otherwise the meaning of the phrase changes, it's no longer "I heard about the movie", but "I heard about the movie" as if the movie could talk, as if it were a person. "Speak with someone", we can replace "with someone", for example, "I talk to her" I can replace "with her" with "there". So "I'll talk to it". "I talk to her", "I talk to her". Because there is the preposition "with". Finally we can also say "speak for someone", in the sense of speaking instead of someone, however in this case we do not replace "for someone" with a pronoun. There is a lot of expression used that is "Speak for yourself!", Speak for yourself, which means what you are saying only applies to you, so not generalize What you are saying. Speak for yourself, it's your opinion. Or is it your experience, not mine. This is all the information I wanted to include in this video, but if you have any further questions, leave them in the comments below! I thank you, as always, for watching this video and we'll see you in the next one. See you soon bye!